Infrastructure | TBN

Infrastructure

Watch Infrastructure
January 9, 2019
27:31

Taking Care of Business

Closed captions

Infrastructure

Show timecode
Hide timecode
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:00:01.070 --> 00:00:04.070
  • - KELLY WRIGHT: IS AMERICA'S
  • 00:00:04.070 --> 00:00:04.280
  • INFRASTRUCTURE CRUMBLING?
  • 00:00:04.280 --> 00:00:05.170
  • DRIVING DOWN THE STREET EVERY
  • 00:00:05.170 --> 00:00:06.080
  • DAY, HITTING POTHOLES, AND
  • 00:00:06.080 --> 00:00:07.210
  • GETTING STUCK IN TRAFFIC --
  • 00:00:07.210 --> 00:00:09.090
  • WELL, IT'S EASY TO BELIEVE.
  • 00:00:09.090 --> 00:00:11.250
  • HOWEVER, THAT MAY NOT BE THE
  • 00:00:11.250 --> 00:00:12.190
  • WHOLE TRUTH.
  • 00:00:12.190 --> 00:00:15.000
  • SO, WE'RE GOING TO TAKE A LOOK
  • 00:00:15.000 --> 00:00:17.130
  • AT AMERICA'S INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 00:00:17.130 --> 00:00:19.200
  • AND HOPEFULLY DETERMINE IF IT
  • 00:00:19.200 --> 00:00:20.250
  • IS, INDEED, CRUMBLING, OR,
  • 00:00:20.250 --> 00:00:21.250
  • FLOURISHING.
  • 00:00:21.250 --> 00:00:24.040
  • [GENTLE WHIR OF TRAFFIC]
  • 00:00:24.040 --> 00:00:25.060
  • THERE IS A GREAT DEBATE GOING
  • 00:00:25.060 --> 00:00:26.040
  • ON IN AMERICA.
  • 00:00:26.040 --> 00:00:27.260
  • IT IS ONE THAT MANY AMERICANS,
  • 00:00:27.260 --> 00:00:30.170
  • IN FACT, HAVE NO IDEA EXIST.
  • 00:00:30.170 --> 00:00:32.170
  • YOU SEE, MANY TAKE FOR GRANTED
  • 00:00:32.170 --> 00:00:33.090
  • THAT WHAT THEY HEAR FROM BOTH
  • 00:00:33.090 --> 00:00:35.120
  • SIDES OF THE AISLE IS TRUE,
  • 00:00:35.120 --> 00:00:37.060
  • THAT THE INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE
  • 00:00:37.060 --> 00:00:39.070
  • UNITED STATES IS CRUMBLING.
  • 00:00:39.070 --> 00:00:41.200
  • - MALE ON CAMERA: WE HAVE A
  • 00:00:41.200 --> 00:00:42.180
  • NATIONAL CRISIS, IN TERMS OF
  • 00:00:42.180 --> 00:00:43.080
  • INFRASTRUCTURE.
  • 00:00:43.080 --> 00:00:43.250
  • - FEMALE ON CAMERA: WE THINK
  • 00:00:43.250 --> 00:00:45.170
  • OUR ROADS AND OUR BRIDGES ARE
  • 00:00:45.170 --> 00:00:46.140
  • FALLING APART.
  • 00:00:46.140 --> 00:00:47.020
  • BUT WHAT'S UNDERNEATH IS EVEN
  • 00:00:47.020 --> 00:00:49.010
  • MORE TROUBLING.
  • 00:00:49.010 --> 00:00:51.000
  • - MALE VOICE: ONE-THIRD OF ALL
  • 00:00:51.000 --> 00:00:52.170
  • URBAN PAVEMENTS NOW ARE
  • 00:00:52.170 --> 00:00:53.100
  • CONSIDERED IN POOR CONDITION
  • 00:00:53.100 --> 00:00:54.260
  • IN THAT THEY'RE GIVING
  • 00:00:54.260 --> 00:00:56.190
  • MOTORISTS A ROUGH RIDE.
  • 00:00:56.190 --> 00:00:57.220
  • - KELLY: BUT NOT EVERYONE IS
  • 00:00:57.220 --> 00:00:58.280
  • CONVINCED.
  • 00:00:58.280 --> 00:01:00.190
  • - MALE VOICE: THE VAST
  • 00:01:00.190 --> 00:01:01.220
  • MAJORITY OF OUR INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 00:01:01.220 --> 00:01:04.190
  • -- IT PERFORMS AS IT'S SUPPOSED
  • 00:01:04.190 --> 00:01:06.280
  • TO -- IS OUT OF SIGHT, OUT OF
  • 00:01:06.280 --> 00:01:07.280
  • MIND, OUT OF THE NEWS.
  • 00:01:07.280 --> 00:01:09.010
  • PEOPLE AREN'T PAYING ANY
  • 00:01:09.010 --> 00:01:10.000
  • ATTENTION TO IT.
  • 00:01:10.000 --> 00:01:11.170
  • - FEMALE ON CAMERA: WHEN YOU
  • 00:01:11.170 --> 00:01:12.080
  • LOOK AT GOVERNMENT DATA, THE
  • 00:01:12.080 --> 00:01:14.170
  • DATA DO NOT, AT ALL, SHOW THAT
  • 00:01:14.170 --> 00:01:16.190
  • OUR INFRASTRUCTURES ARE
  • 00:01:16.190 --> 00:01:17.100
  • CRUMBLING.
  • 00:01:17.100 --> 00:01:19.020
  • - MALE ON CAMERA: OUR PEOPLE
  • 00:01:19.020 --> 00:01:19.290
  • OFTEN SAY THE HIGHWAYS ARE
  • 00:01:19.290 --> 00:01:20.180
  • CRUMBLING.
  • 00:01:20.180 --> 00:01:21.030
  • BUT IF YOU LOOK AT THE DATA,
  • 00:01:21.030 --> 00:01:21.240
  • ACTUALLY, AMERICAN HIGHWAYS,
  • 00:01:21.240 --> 00:01:22.290
  • ESPECIALLY THE INTERSTATES,
  • 00:01:22.290 --> 00:01:24.180
  • HAVE GOT BETTER AND BETTER OVER
  • 00:01:24.180 --> 00:01:25.100
  • THE YEARS.
  • 00:01:25.100 --> 00:01:27.000
  • - KELLY: IN THIS EDITION OF
  • 00:01:27.000 --> 00:01:27.280
  • "TAKING CARE OF BUSINESS,"
  • 00:01:27.280 --> 00:01:29.210
  • WE'LL TRY TO DISCOVER THE TRUTH
  • 00:01:29.210 --> 00:01:31.090
  • - FEMALE SINGING VOICE:
  • 00:01:52.240 --> 00:01:53.120
  • TAKIN' CARE OF BUSINESS
  • 00:01:53.120 --> 00:01:55.290
  • TAKIN' CARE OF BUSINEE-EE-EES
  • 00:01:57.140 --> 00:02:00.160
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:02:03.050 --> 00:02:06.050
  • - KELLY: DOWN TO THE PAVEMENT
  • 00:02:08.290 --> 00:02:09.210
  • ON YOUR STREET AND IN THE
  • 00:02:09.210 --> 00:02:11.190
  • GROUND BELOW IT OR EVEN IN THE
  • 00:02:11.190 --> 00:02:12.100
  • AIR ABOVE IT ARE THE THINGS
  • 00:02:12.100 --> 00:02:14.000
  • THAT PROVIDE US WITH OUR VERY
  • 00:02:14.000 --> 00:02:14.210
  • FROM THE ELECTRICAL GRID TO THE
  • 00:02:18.030 --> 00:02:19.090
  • WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WE
  • 00:02:19.090 --> 00:02:19.290
  • DEPEND ON, THE BASIC
  • 00:02:19.290 --> 00:02:21.290
  • NECESSITIES THAT RUN THE ENGINE
  • 00:02:21.290 --> 00:02:23.250
  • OF OUR LIVES ARE A RESOURCE
  • 00:02:23.250 --> 00:02:26.010
  • VITAL TO EVERY AMERICAN.
  • 00:02:26.010 --> 00:02:28.140
  • THE DEMAND ON THESE SYSTEMS
  • 00:02:28.140 --> 00:02:30.130
  • CONTINUE TO GROW.
  • 00:02:30.130 --> 00:02:32.270
  • OUR INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS
  • 00:02:32.270 --> 00:02:34.000
  • ONGOING MAINTENANCE, UPGRADES,
  • 00:02:34.000 --> 00:02:35.290
  • OR REPLACEMENTS, IN ORDER TO
  • 00:02:35.290 --> 00:02:38.040
  • MEET THE DEMANDS.
  • 00:02:38.040 --> 00:02:39.180
  • HOW AND WHEN TO BEST ACCOMPLISH
  • 00:02:39.180 --> 00:02:41.010
  • THAT IS THE QUESTION.
  • 00:02:41.010 --> 00:02:43.270
  • THE LEVEL OF CONCERN IS DEBATED
  • 00:02:43.270 --> 00:02:45.000
  • IN THE HALLS OF GOVERNMENT;
  • 00:02:45.000 --> 00:02:46.070
  • BEHIND THE WHEEL OF OUR CARS,
  • 00:02:46.070 --> 00:02:47.240
  • AND IN THE OFFICES OF
  • 00:02:47.240 --> 00:02:49.280
  • POLITICIANS, AND EVERYWHERE
  • 00:02:49.280 --> 00:02:51.020
  • ELSE; EDUCATORS AND
  • 00:02:51.020 --> 00:02:52.260
  • PROFESSIONALS.
  • 00:02:52.260 --> 00:02:53.260
  • SO, LET'S BEGIN AT THE OFFICES
  • 00:02:53.260 --> 00:02:55.220
  • - KRISTINA SWALLOW:
  • 00:03:01.130 --> 00:03:02.030
  • THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL
  • 00:03:02.030 --> 00:03:02.270
  • ENGINEERS RELEASES A REPORT
  • 00:03:02.270 --> 00:03:04.070
  • CARD ON THE STATE OF OUR
  • 00:03:04.070 --> 00:03:05.220
  • NATION'S INFRASTRUCTURE EVERY
  • 00:03:05.220 --> 00:03:07.040
  • JUST LIKE IT IS WHEN YOU COME
  • 00:03:09.090 --> 00:03:10.030
  • HOME FROM SCHOOL, A C IS FAIR;
  • 00:03:10.030 --> 00:03:11.270
  • YOU'RE DOING YOUR JOB; YOU'RE
  • 00:03:11.270 --> 00:03:13.120
  • OKAY IF YOU GET A C.
  • 00:03:13.120 --> 00:03:14.080
  • A D IS POOR.
  • 00:03:14.080 --> 00:03:15.250
  • F IS FAILING TO MEET OUR NEEDS.
  • 00:03:15.250 --> 00:03:16.170
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:03:16.170 --> 00:03:17.110
  • AND THE MOST RECENT REPORT CARD
  • 00:03:20.010 --> 00:03:20.230
  • - KELLY: THE ASCE REPORT
  • 00:03:24.270 --> 00:03:25.250
  • GRADED BRIDGES A C+, ROADS A D,
  • 00:03:25.250 --> 00:03:27.000
  • IT ALSO SHOWED THAT AMERICANS
  • 00:03:34.160 --> 00:03:35.160
  • SPENT 6.9 BILLION HOURS DELAYED
  • 00:03:35.160 --> 00:03:36.080
  • IN TRAFFIC.
  • 00:03:36.260 --> 00:03:39.260
  • MORE THAN 9 PERCENT OF THE
  • 00:03:39.260 --> 00:03:40.170
  • NATION'S BRIDGES ARE
  • 00:03:40.170 --> 00:03:42.040
  • STRUCTURALLY DEFICIENT, MEANING
  • 00:03:42.040 --> 00:03:42.260
  • THEY REQUIRE REPAIR AND MORE
  • 00:03:42.260 --> 00:03:43.160
  • FREQUENT INSPECTIONS.
  • 00:03:43.160 --> 00:03:45.260
  • CONGESTION AT AIRPORTS
  • 00:03:46.050 --> 00:03:49.050
  • CONTINUES TO GROW.
  • 00:03:49.050 --> 00:03:50.080
  • BY 2020, FOUR OUT OF THE FIVE
  • 00:03:50.080 --> 00:03:51.150
  • MAJOR AIRPORTS WILL EXPERIENCE
  • 00:03:51.170 --> 00:03:54.170
  • THANKSGIVING HOLIDAY TRAFFIC AT
  • 00:03:54.170 --> 00:03:55.270
  • LEAST ONCE A WEEK.
  • 00:03:55.270 --> 00:03:58.220
  • THE REPORT ALSO SHOWS THAT
  • 00:03:58.220 --> 00:04:00.050
  • TRANSIT RIDERSHIP IS AT ITS
  • 00:04:00.050 --> 00:04:01.250
  • HIGHEST LEVEL IN FOUR DECADES.
  • 00:04:01.250 --> 00:04:04.010
  • BUT TRANSIT SYSTEMS ACROSS THE
  • 00:04:04.010 --> 00:04:06.110
  • COUNTRY HAVE BILLIONS OF
  • 00:04:06.110 --> 00:04:07.200
  • DOLLARS IN SURPLUS.
  • 00:04:07.200 --> 00:04:10.160
  • THIS RESULTED IN THE REPORT
  • 00:04:10.160 --> 00:04:11.250
  • CARD'S LOWEST GRADE.
  • 00:04:11.250 --> 00:04:14.030
  • COLLECTIVELY, THE ASCE RESEARCH
  • 00:04:14.030 --> 00:04:15.290
  • FOUND THAT TRANSPORTATION
  • 00:04:15.290 --> 00:04:18.190
  • INFRASTRUCTURE HAS MORE THAN A
  • 00:04:18.190 --> 00:04:20.210
  • TRILLION DOLLARS IN UNMET
  • 00:04:20.210 --> 00:04:22.050
  • FUNDING NEEDS.
  • 00:04:22.050 --> 00:04:23.230
  • SURFACE TRANSPORTATION NEEDS
  • 00:04:23.230 --> 00:04:24.250
  • $1.1 TRILLION INVESTED AND
  • 00:04:26.270 --> 00:04:29.270
  • AVIATION NEEDS ABOUT $42
  • 00:04:29.270 --> 00:04:30.160
  • BILLION.
  • 00:04:30.160 --> 00:04:33.010
  • - KRISTINA: UNFORTUNATELY, THE
  • 00:04:33.010 --> 00:04:34.050
  • GRADES ARE NOTHING YOU WOULD
  • 00:04:34.050 --> 00:04:35.100
  • WRITE HOME ABOUT, OR, BE PROUD
  • 00:04:35.100 --> 00:04:36.020
  • - KELLY: ENERGY DIDN'T SCORE
  • 00:04:39.060 --> 00:04:40.150
  • MUCH BETTER, WITH A GRADE OF
  • 00:04:40.150 --> 00:04:41.260
  • THE DEMAND FOR ELECTRICAL POWER
  • 00:04:43.260 --> 00:04:44.240
  • IS AT AN ALL-TIME HIGH.
  • 00:04:44.240 --> 00:04:46.100
  • RIGHT NOW, ABOUT 124 MILLION
  • 00:04:46.100 --> 00:04:48.240
  • U.S. HOUSEHOLDS ARE USING
  • 00:04:48.240 --> 00:04:50.040
  • ELECTRICITY SUPPLIED BY THE
  • 00:04:50.050 --> 00:04:53.050
  • POWER GRID, A GRID THAT THE
  • 00:04:53.050 --> 00:04:54.250
  • ASCE SAYS IS ALREADY RUNNING AT
  • 00:04:55.090 --> 00:04:58.090
  • FULL CAPACITY.
  • 00:04:58.090 --> 00:05:01.000
  • - KRISTINA: THERE ARE...ALMOST
  • 00:05:01.000 --> 00:05:02.080
  • 36.000 OUTAGES A YEAR IN OUR
  • 00:05:02.080 --> 00:05:03.060
  • INFRASTRUCTURE.
  • 00:05:03.060 --> 00:05:05.060
  • AND THAT AVERAGES OUT
  • 00:05:05.060 --> 00:05:07.140
  • TO...ROUGHLY TEN-- TEN A DAY.
  • 00:05:07.140 --> 00:05:08.160
  • - KELLY: MOST ELECTRIC
  • 00:05:08.160 --> 00:05:09.080
  • TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
  • 00:05:09.080 --> 00:05:10.260
  • LINES WERE CONSTRUCTED IN THE
  • 00:05:10.260 --> 00:05:11.290
  • 1950s AND 1960s WITH A 50-YEAR
  • 00:05:14.000 --> 00:05:17.000
  • LIFE EXPECTANCY.
  • 00:05:17.000 --> 00:05:17.170
  • WITHOUT PROPER ATTENTION TO
  • 00:05:17.170 --> 00:05:18.140
  • AGING EQUIPMENT, AS WELL AS
  • 00:05:18.140 --> 00:05:20.060
  • ADDRESSING STORM AND CLIMATE
  • 00:05:20.060 --> 00:05:22.110
  • IMPACTS, EXPERTS BELIEVE
  • 00:05:22.110 --> 00:05:24.180
  • AMERICANS WILL LIKELY
  • 00:05:24.180 --> 00:05:26.290
  • EXPERIENCE LONGER AND MORE
  • 00:05:26.290 --> 00:05:29.070
  • FREQUENT POWER INTERRUPTIONS.
  • 00:05:29.070 --> 00:05:31.170
  • - KRISTINA: THINK ABOUT WHAT
  • 00:05:31.170 --> 00:05:32.160
  • THAT MEANS.
  • 00:05:32.160 --> 00:05:33.020
  • THERE'S POWER-GRID OUTAGES,
  • 00:05:33.020 --> 00:05:35.000
  • THERE'S WATER-MAIN BREAKS THAT
  • 00:05:35.000 --> 00:05:35.270
  • WE SEE THAT NOT JUST IMPACT
  • 00:05:35.270 --> 00:05:37.050
  • THAT DIRECT COMMUNITY THAT NOW
  • 00:05:37.050 --> 00:05:38.270
  • IS UNDER A BOIL-WATER ADVISORY,
  • 00:05:38.270 --> 00:05:40.190
  • BUT IT POSSIBLY IMPACTS THE
  • 00:05:40.190 --> 00:05:43.020
  • ENTIRE COMMUNITY AROUND THE
  • 00:05:43.020 --> 00:05:44.250
  • AREA THAT NOW HAS EXTRA
  • 00:05:44.250 --> 00:05:45.260
  • TRANSPORTATION CONGESTION
  • 00:05:45.260 --> 00:05:48.030
  • AND DIVERSIONS BECAUSE THAT
  • 00:05:48.030 --> 00:05:50.010
  • WATER-MAIN BREAK WAS SO
  • 00:05:50.010 --> 00:05:50.190
  • SIGNIFICANT THAT THEY HAD TO
  • 00:05:50.190 --> 00:05:52.090
  • REROUTE TRAFFIC.
  • 00:05:52.140 --> 00:05:55.140
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:05:55.140 --> 00:05:57.180
  • - ROCKY MORETTI: WHAT WE'VE
  • 00:05:57.180 --> 00:05:58.080
  • SEEN IN THE LAST FIVE YEARS IS
  • 00:05:58.080 --> 00:05:58.290
  • A SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN
  • 00:05:58.290 --> 00:05:59.190
  • VEHICLE TRAVEL.
  • 00:05:59.190 --> 00:06:01.080
  • IT'S A POSITIVE SIGN BECAUSE IT
  • 00:06:01.080 --> 00:06:03.100
  • WE SAW AFTER THE RECESSION OF
  • 00:06:06.190 --> 00:06:08.240
  • 2008 ABOUT A FIVE-YEAR PERIOD
  • 00:06:08.240 --> 00:06:09.170
  • WHERE WE DIDN'T SEE MUCH
  • 00:06:09.170 --> 00:06:10.110
  • NOW, WE'RE SEEING TRAVEL
  • 00:06:13.030 --> 00:06:13.220
  • INCREASING ABOUT 1.5 PERCENT A
  • 00:06:13.220 --> 00:06:14.140
  • YEAR.
  • 00:06:14.140 --> 00:06:16.060
  • THAT'S HIGHER THAN MOST PEOPLE
  • 00:06:16.060 --> 00:06:16.280
  • HAD ANTICIPATED.
  • 00:06:16.280 --> 00:06:18.170
  • AND WHILE IT'S CERTAINLY GOOD
  • 00:06:18.170 --> 00:06:19.230
  • NEWS, IN TERMS OF THE ECONOMY,
  • 00:06:19.230 --> 00:06:21.270
  • IT ALSO MEANS MORE WEAR AND
  • 00:06:21.270 --> 00:06:23.030
  • TEAR ON OUR TRANSPORTATION
  • 00:06:23.030 --> 00:06:24.050
  • SYSTEM AND MORE TRAFFIC
  • 00:06:24.050 --> 00:06:24.230
  • CONGESTION.
  • 00:06:24.230 --> 00:06:27.010
  • - KELLY: THERE ARE MORE THAN
  • 00:06:27.010 --> 00:06:27.220
  • 263 MILLION REGISTERED VEHICLES
  • 00:06:27.220 --> 00:06:29.240
  • TRAVELING ON U.S. ROADS.
  • 00:06:29.240 --> 00:06:32.210
  • AS A NATION, THAT'S SECOND ONLY
  • 00:06:32.210 --> 00:06:35.180
  • TO CHINA.
  • 00:06:35.180 --> 00:06:37.130
  • THIS CREATES MORE THAN TRAFFIC
  • 00:06:37.130 --> 00:06:39.210
  • PROBLEMS; IT DETERIORATES THE
  • 00:06:39.210 --> 00:06:40.120
  • ROADWAYS.
  • 00:06:40.120 --> 00:06:43.110
  • - ROCKY: ONE-THIRD OF ALL
  • 00:06:43.110 --> 00:06:45.190
  • URBAN PAVEMENTS, NOW, ARE
  • 00:06:45.190 --> 00:06:46.270
  • CONSIDERED IN POOR CONDITION,
  • 00:06:46.270 --> 00:06:48.020
  • IN THAT THEY'RE GIVING
  • 00:06:48.020 --> 00:06:49.120
  • MOTORISTS A ROUGH RIDE.
  • 00:06:49.120 --> 00:06:51.020
  • AND WE HAVE FOUND THAT THE COST
  • 00:06:51.020 --> 00:06:52.200
  • OF DRIVING ON ROUGH ROADS,
  • 00:06:52.200 --> 00:06:55.160
  • NATIONALLY, NOW, IS $130
  • 00:06:55.160 --> 00:06:57.160
  • BILLION ANNUALLY, WHERE THE
  • 00:06:57.160 --> 00:06:59.200
  • AVERAGE MOTORIST -- IT COSTS
  • 00:06:59.200 --> 00:07:02.000
  • THEM AN ADDITIONAL $599 PER
  • 00:07:02.000 --> 00:07:02.240
  • YEAR.
  • 00:07:02.240 --> 00:07:05.080
  • - KELLY: SOME RESIDENTS
  • 00:07:05.080 --> 00:07:06.060
  • UNDERSTAND THE COST OF BAD
  • 00:07:06.060 --> 00:07:07.080
  • - MARY DAVIS: I'VE BEEN ON
  • 00:07:11.030 --> 00:07:11.280
  • THIS STREET SINCE 1975...
  • 00:07:11.280 --> 00:07:14.120
  • AND...WE...HAVE NOT HAD THIS
  • 00:07:14.120 --> 00:07:16.120
  • STREET PAVED -- AND I HAVE BEEN
  • 00:07:16.120 --> 00:07:17.220
  • TRYING TO GET IT PAVED --
  • 00:07:17.220 --> 00:07:20.070
  • SINCE, LIKE, ABOUT 2005, MAYBE
  • 00:07:20.070 --> 00:07:20.290
  • [PASSING VAN RATTLING LOUDLY]
  • 00:07:25.120 --> 00:07:26.230
  • I GOT A FILE OF PAPERWORK,
  • 00:07:26.230 --> 00:07:27.160
  • HERE, THAT I'VE SENT TO THE
  • 00:07:27.160 --> 00:07:29.020
  • CITY.
  • 00:07:29.020 --> 00:07:29.170
  • THEY'VE WROTE ME BACK.
  • 00:07:29.170 --> 00:07:30.270
  • AND, I JUST GOT A LETTER, MAYBE
  • 00:07:30.270 --> 00:07:32.030
  • ABOUT A MONTH AND A HALF AGO,
  • 00:07:32.030 --> 00:07:33.020
  • SAYING THAT THEY WERE GONNA BE
  • 00:07:33.020 --> 00:07:35.080
  • LOOKING AT REPAVING THE STREET.
  • 00:07:35.080 --> 00:07:37.030
  • I WAS TOLD A COUPLE YEARS AGO
  • 00:07:37.030 --> 00:07:39.140
  • IT WAS GONNA BE REPAVED; NOBODY
  • 00:07:39.140 --> 00:07:40.190
  • DID ANYTHING.
  • 00:07:40.190 --> 00:07:42.140
  • SO, WHAT THEY DID -- THEY CAME
  • 00:07:42.140 --> 00:07:43.210
  • OUT AND THEY DROPPED SOME TAR
  • 00:07:43.210 --> 00:07:45.160
  • DOWN THERE AT THE END, IN THE
  • 00:07:45.160 --> 00:07:47.080
  • ENTRANCE INTO THE STREET, AND
  • 00:07:47.080 --> 00:07:48.170
  • THEY DROPPED SOME BACK THE
  • 00:07:48.170 --> 00:07:49.070
  • OTHER WAY.
  • 00:07:49.070 --> 00:07:50.200
  • AND I SAID, "OH, THAT'S THE
  • 00:07:50.200 --> 00:07:51.270
  • PAVING?"
  • 00:07:51.270 --> 00:07:53.150
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:07:53.150 --> 00:07:54.160
  • - KELLY: THERE ARE MANY PEOPLE
  • 00:07:54.160 --> 00:07:55.080
  • IN MARY'S POSITION IN HER
  • 00:07:55.080 --> 00:07:56.030
  • NATIVE CITY OF DETROIT.
  • 00:07:56.030 --> 00:07:57.250
  • WHAT WAS ONE OF THE GREATEST
  • 00:07:57.250 --> 00:07:59.020
  • CENTERS OF INDUSTRY AND
  • 00:07:59.020 --> 00:08:01.020
  • ADVANCEMENT IN THE COUNTRY IS
  • 00:08:01.020 --> 00:08:01.230
  • NOW BROKEN DOWN.
  • 00:08:01.230 --> 00:08:04.130
  • DETROIT'S ROADS, FOR EXAMPLE,
  • 00:08:04.130 --> 00:08:05.210
  • ARE RANKED FOURTH WORST IN THE
  • 00:08:05.210 --> 00:08:07.020
  • NATION FOR CITIES WITH 500.000
  • 00:08:07.020 --> 00:08:08.210
  • PEOPLE OR MORE, COSTING THE
  • 00:08:08.210 --> 00:08:11.030
  • CITY'S INHABITANTS AN EXTRA
  • 00:08:11.030 --> 00:08:12.240
  • $866 IN VEHICLE REPAIRS PER
  • 00:08:13.050 --> 00:08:16.050
  • YEAR.
  • 00:08:16.050 --> 00:08:18.180
  • - MARY: LAST WEEK I HAD MY
  • 00:08:18.180 --> 00:08:19.260
  • CAR INTO THE DEALERSHIP BECAUSE
  • 00:08:19.260 --> 00:08:21.210
  • I HIT A POTHOLE, AND, LUCKILY,
  • 00:08:22.190 --> 00:08:25.190
  • I HAD THE INSURANCE FOR IT.
  • 00:08:25.190 --> 00:08:26.090
  • AND, I JUST HAD IT REPAIRED.
  • 00:08:26.090 --> 00:08:27.130
  • I'D JUST LIKE TO SEE THE CITY,
  • 00:08:27.130 --> 00:08:29.160
  • YOU KNOW, LIKE, DO A LITTLE BIT
  • 00:08:29.160 --> 00:08:31.260
  • MORE FOR THE NEIGHBORHOOD.
  • 00:08:31.260 --> 00:08:33.000
  • - KELLY: UNFORTUNATELY, THE
  • 00:08:33.000 --> 00:08:33.210
  • CITY DOESN'T SEEM EAGER TO LEND
  • 00:08:33.210 --> 00:08:34.140
  • A HAND.
  • 00:08:34.140 --> 00:08:35.180
  • - MARY: THIS IS WHAT I SENT IN
  • 00:08:35.180 --> 00:08:36.280
  • MARCH.
  • 00:08:36.280 --> 00:08:39.120
  • THIS IS A PAPER THAT I SENT
  • 00:08:39.120 --> 00:08:40.020
  • OUT.
  • 00:08:40.020 --> 00:08:41.040
  • AND, UM, I TOLD 'EM I HAD ALL
  • 00:08:41.040 --> 00:08:42.200
  • MY DATES ON HERE -- YOU KNOW,
  • 00:08:43.040 --> 00:08:46.040
  • WHEN I HAD BEEN SENDING STUFF.
  • 00:08:46.040 --> 00:08:47.140
  • LETTERS THAT I RECEIVED GO BACK
  • 00:08:47.140 --> 00:08:48.180
  • TO 2010.
  • 00:08:48.180 --> 00:08:51.030
  • AND THEN, I HAD GOT THIS
  • 00:08:51.030 --> 00:08:52.230
  • LETTER, LIKE I SAID, BACK,
  • 00:08:52.230 --> 00:08:53.280
  • UM...TAKE A LOOK HERE AND SEE
  • 00:08:53.280 --> 00:08:55.200
  • WHAT THE DATE IS.
  • 00:08:55.200 --> 00:08:57.160
  • I HAD TO PUT MY GLASSES ON FOR
  • 00:08:57.160 --> 00:08:59.090
  • THIS HERE.
  • 00:08:59.090 --> 00:09:00.110
  • THIS WAS...MAY 11TH.
  • 00:09:00.110 --> 00:09:01.190
  • "I HAVE PROCESSED YOUR
  • 00:09:01.190 --> 00:09:03.100
  • COMPLAINT AND FORWARDED YOUR
  • 00:09:03.100 --> 00:09:04.250
  • CONCERN TO AN APPROPRIATE
  • 00:09:04.250 --> 00:09:06.050
  • DEPARTMENT.
  • 00:09:06.050 --> 00:09:06.230
  • FOR YOUR INFORMATION, A COPY OF
  • 00:09:06.230 --> 00:09:08.080
  • THE COMPLAINT IS ENCLOSED.
  • 00:09:08.080 --> 00:09:09.030
  • IT CAN TAKE UP TO 30 DAYS TO
  • 00:09:09.030 --> 00:09:10.030
  • GET A RESPONSE.
  • 00:09:10.030 --> 00:09:11.070
  • WE SUGGEST THAT YOU HOLD ONTO
  • 00:09:11.070 --> 00:09:12.260
  • THE COMPLAINT NUMBER ISSUED BY
  • 00:09:12.260 --> 00:09:14.010
  • THE OFFICER SO THAT WE CAN
  • 00:09:14.010 --> 00:09:15.050
  • FOLLOW UP, IF NECESSARY."
  • 00:09:15.050 --> 00:09:16.250
  • [DOG BARKING IN DISTANCE]
  • 00:09:16.250 --> 00:09:17.270
  • THIS WAS MAY 11TH -- YOU KNOW,
  • 00:09:17.270 --> 00:09:18.180
  • AFTER I HAD SENT THEM, YOU
  • 00:09:18.180 --> 00:09:19.270
  • KNOW, ANOTHER LETTER.
  • 00:09:19.270 --> 00:09:21.230
  • - VERONIQUE DE RUGY:
  • 00:09:24.250 --> 00:09:25.210
  • ECONOMISTS AGREE THAT
  • 00:09:25.210 --> 00:09:27.170
  • MAINTENANCE OF ROADS AND
  • 00:09:27.170 --> 00:09:28.050
  • INFRASTRUCTURES IS PROBABLY
  • 00:09:28.050 --> 00:09:30.090
  • WHERE YOU WOULD GET THE BIGGEST
  • 00:09:30.090 --> 00:09:32.160
  • BUT THERE'S NO RIBBON-CUTTING
  • 00:09:34.220 --> 00:09:35.130
  • CEREMONY WHEN YOU FILL
  • 00:09:35.130 --> 00:09:36.040
  • POTHOLES.
  • 00:09:36.040 --> 00:09:36.170
  • SO, POLITICIANS TEND TO NOT
  • 00:09:36.170 --> 00:09:38.090
  • PREFER THESE PROJECTS, AND,
  • 00:09:38.090 --> 00:09:40.240
  • INSTEAD, THEY'D RATHER LIKE THE
  • 00:09:40.240 --> 00:09:42.040
  • BIG WHITE ELEPHANT PROJECT, THE
  • 00:09:42.040 --> 00:09:44.230
  • THING THAT, YOU KNOW, WILL LEAD
  • 00:09:44.230 --> 00:09:46.030
  • TO, YOU KNOW, THE FRONT PAGE OF
  • 00:09:46.030 --> 00:09:47.150
  • THE LOCAL NEWSPAPERS.
  • 00:09:47.150 --> 00:09:49.190
  • [TRUCK ENGINE HUM]
  • 00:09:49.190 --> 00:09:51.050
  • - KELLY: AND, JUST DOWN THE
  • 00:09:51.050 --> 00:09:51.250
  • STREET FROM DETROIT, ONE CITY'S
  • 00:09:51.250 --> 00:09:52.240
  • LACK OF INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 00:09:52.240 --> 00:09:53.190
  • MAINTENANCE LED TO HEADLINES OF
  • 00:09:53.190 --> 00:09:56.050
  • A FAR MORE SINISTER VARIETY.
  • 00:09:59.050 --> 00:10:02.050
  • IN 2014, THE CITY OF FLINT WAS
  • 00:10:02.050 --> 00:10:03.170
  • IN ECONOMIC TROUBLE, SUFFERING
  • 00:10:03.170 --> 00:10:04.100
  • FROM MANY OF THE SAME HARDSHIPS
  • 00:10:04.100 --> 00:10:05.020
  • AS DETROIT BROUGHT ON BY THE
  • 00:10:05.020 --> 00:10:07.030
  • COLLAPSE OF THE AUTO INDUSTRY
  • 00:10:07.030 --> 00:10:08.200
  • IN THE AREA.
  • 00:10:08.200 --> 00:10:09.250
  • [FLOW OF WATER]
  • 00:10:09.250 --> 00:10:11.050
  • CITY OFFICIALS WERE LOOKING FOR
  • 00:10:11.050 --> 00:10:11.270
  • A CHEAPER WAY TO BRING
  • 00:10:11.270 --> 00:10:13.220
  • NECESSITIES TO THE CITY.
  • 00:10:13.220 --> 00:10:15.060
  • PRIOR TO 2014, FLINT HAD
  • 00:10:15.060 --> 00:10:16.210
  • RECEIVED ITS WATER FROM DETROIT
  • 00:10:16.210 --> 00:10:17.230
  • PIPELINES.
  • 00:10:17.230 --> 00:10:20.030
  • BUT TO SAVE MONEY, THE CITY'S
  • 00:10:20.030 --> 00:10:22.060
  • MANAGERS TOOK FLINT OFF THE
  • 00:10:22.060 --> 00:10:24.140
  • DETROIT-PIPELINE WATER AND
  • 00:10:24.140 --> 00:10:26.110
  • STARTED FUNNELING WATER FROM
  • 00:10:26.110 --> 00:10:28.130
  • THE FLINT RIVER THROUGH THEIR
  • 00:10:28.130 --> 00:10:29.210
  • OWN TREATMENT CENTER AND
  • 00:10:29.210 --> 00:10:31.110
  • STRAIGHT INTO THE TAPS OF
  • 00:10:31.110 --> 00:10:32.030
  • RESIDENTS.
  • 00:10:33.130 --> 00:10:36.130
  • IMMEDIATELY AFTER FLINT MADE
  • 00:10:36.130 --> 00:10:37.240
  • THE SWITCH TO RIVER WATER,
  • 00:10:37.240 --> 00:10:39.170
  • THINGS STARTED GOING TERRIBLY
  • 00:10:39.170 --> 00:10:41.140
  • WRONG AND PEOPLE STARTED
  • 00:10:41.140 --> 00:10:42.020
  • - DR. MONA HANNA-ATTISHA: THE
  • 00:10:45.110 --> 00:10:46.100
  • SITUATION IN FLINT WAS A
  • 00:10:46.100 --> 00:10:47.130
  • PERFECT STORM BECAUSE OF MANY
  • 00:10:47.130 --> 00:10:48.040
  • FACTORS.
  • 00:10:48.040 --> 00:10:48.190
  • UM, OUR WATER SOURCE WAS
  • 00:10:48.190 --> 00:10:49.100
  • CHANGED FROM THE GREAT LAKES TO
  • 00:10:49.100 --> 00:10:51.150
  • THE FLINT RIVER, WITHOUT PROPER
  • 00:10:51.150 --> 00:10:52.120
  • - KELLY: THE CRISIS OF 2015
  • 00:10:55.030 --> 00:10:55.230
  • WAS BROUGHT TO THE NATIONAL
  • 00:10:55.230 --> 00:10:57.000
  • SPOTLIGHT BY DR. MONA
  • 00:10:57.000 --> 00:10:58.130
  • HANNA-ATTISHA.
  • 00:11:00.150 --> 00:11:03.150
  • HER RESEARCH REVEALED THAT
  • 00:11:03.150 --> 00:11:04.050
  • CHILDREN WERE EXPOSED TO
  • 00:11:04.050 --> 00:11:05.010
  • DANGEROUS LEVELS OF LEAD IN THE
  • 00:11:05.010 --> 00:11:05.250
  • PUBLIC WATER.
  • 00:11:05.250 --> 00:11:08.060
  • - DR. HANNA-ATTISHA: THAT
  • 00:11:08.060 --> 00:11:08.260
  • CORROSIVE WATER WENT THROUGH AN
  • 00:11:08.260 --> 00:11:10.020
  • AGING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.
  • 00:11:10.020 --> 00:11:12.290
  • OUR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM HAS A
  • 00:11:12.290 --> 00:11:14.150
  • LOT OF LEAD IN OUR PIPES AND
  • 00:11:14.150 --> 00:11:16.020
  • OUR PLUMBING.
  • 00:11:16.020 --> 00:11:17.280
  • SO, IT WAS A COMBINATION OF THE
  • 00:11:17.280 --> 00:11:19.030
  • LACK OF WATER TREATMENT AND
  • 00:11:19.030 --> 00:11:20.160
  • THEN THAT WATER FLOWING THROUGH
  • 00:11:20.160 --> 00:11:22.150
  • THAT AGING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
  • 00:11:22.150 --> 00:11:23.270
  • THAT HAD LEAD THAT CREATED THIS
  • 00:11:23.270 --> 00:11:25.160
  • PROBLEM.
  • 00:11:25.160 --> 00:11:26.030
  • WE ACTUALLY DON'T SEE LEAD IN
  • 00:11:26.030 --> 00:11:26.240
  • WATER.
  • 00:11:26.240 --> 00:11:28.170
  • IT'S INVISIBLE, IT'S ODORLESS,
  • 00:11:28.170 --> 00:11:30.160
  • IT'S TASTELESS.
  • 00:11:30.160 --> 00:11:31.120
  • WE ALSO DON'T SEE THE IMPACT OF
  • 00:11:31.120 --> 00:11:32.050
  • LEAD.
  • 00:11:32.050 --> 00:11:34.010
  • IT'S KNOWN AS A SILENT
  • 00:11:34.010 --> 00:11:35.070
  • PEDIATRIC EPIDEMIC.
  • 00:11:35.070 --> 00:11:36.060
  • WE DON'T SEE ITS CONSEQUENCES,
  • 00:11:36.060 --> 00:11:37.170
  • UM, IN OUR EXAM ROOMS, IN
  • 00:11:37.170 --> 00:11:38.240
  • CLINIC.
  • 00:11:38.240 --> 00:11:40.200
  • IT'S SOMETHING THAT COMES OUT
  • 00:11:40.200 --> 00:11:41.210
  • YEARS IF NOT DECADES LATER.
  • 00:11:41.210 --> 00:11:43.020
  • - KELLY: IT TOOK UNTIL OCTOBER
  • 00:11:43.020 --> 00:11:44.170
  • 15, 2015, NEARLY 18 MONTHS
  • 00:11:45.010 --> 00:11:48.010
  • AFTER THE PROBLEMS BEGAN --
  • 00:11:48.010 --> 00:11:49.280
  • THAT'S WHEN GOVERNOR RICK
  • 00:11:49.280 --> 00:11:51.290
  • SNYDER APPROVED A SWITCH BACK
  • 00:11:51.290 --> 00:11:53.220
  • TO DETROIT WATER.
  • 00:11:53.220 --> 00:11:55.210
  • [WATER FLOWING]
  • 00:11:55.210 --> 00:11:56.230
  • UNFORTUNATELY, DURING THE
  • 00:11:56.230 --> 00:11:58.010
  • INCIDENT THAT CAME TO BE KNOWN
  • 00:11:58.010 --> 00:11:59.220
  • AS "THE FLINT WATER CRISIS",
  • 00:11:59.220 --> 00:12:01.150
  • HUNDREDS OF PEOPLE GOT SICK.
  • 00:12:02.150 --> 00:12:05.150
  • THE MASSIVE CORROSION NEGATED
  • 00:12:05.150 --> 00:12:07.050
  • THE EFFECTS OF THE CHLORINE
  • 00:12:07.050 --> 00:12:08.090
  • TREATMENT THAT CLEANED THE
  • 00:12:08.090 --> 00:12:09.110
  • WATER.
  • 00:12:09.110 --> 00:12:11.060
  • WITHOUT IT, E. COLI BACTERIA
  • 00:12:11.060 --> 00:12:12.210
  • WAS FREE TO MULTIPLY AND INFECT
  • 00:12:12.210 --> 00:12:14.010
  • MANY PEOPLE.
  • 00:12:14.010 --> 00:12:16.050
  • THE IRON IN THE WATER ALSO FED
  • 00:12:16.050 --> 00:12:18.000
  • THE BACTERIA THAT CAUSES
  • 00:12:18.000 --> 00:12:19.220
  • LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
  • 00:12:19.220 --> 00:12:21.090
  • THERE WAS ALSO A 58 PERCENT
  • 00:12:21.090 --> 00:12:23.240
  • INCREASE IN FETAL DEATHS THAT
  • 00:12:23.240 --> 00:12:25.190
  • OCCURRED AT THE TIME OF THE
  • 00:12:25.190 --> 00:12:27.070
  • CRISIS.
  • 00:12:27.070 --> 00:12:29.110
  • A STILL-UNKNOWN NUMBER OF
  • 00:12:29.110 --> 00:12:30.240
  • ADULTS AND CHILDREN WERE
  • 00:12:30.240 --> 00:12:31.250
  • EXPOSED TO LEAD POISONING.
  • 00:12:31.250 --> 00:12:34.020
  • AFTER THE DUST SETTLED IN THE
  • 00:12:34.020 --> 00:12:35.290
  • CITY OF FLINT, THE QUESTION ON
  • 00:12:35.290 --> 00:12:38.030
  • EVERYONE'S LIPS WAS: HOW?
  • 00:12:39.240 --> 00:12:42.240
  • HOW DID THIS SITUATION SPIRAL
  • 00:12:42.240 --> 00:12:43.150
  • - MIKE NYSTROM: I THINK THAT
  • 00:12:49.130 --> 00:12:50.040
  • THEY HAD MADE DECISIONS THAT
  • 00:12:50.040 --> 00:12:51.110
  • ALLOWED THEIR SYSTEM TO SLIP
  • 00:12:51.110 --> 00:12:52.050
  • INTO FURTHER AND FURTHER
  • 00:12:52.050 --> 00:12:55.050
  • ONCE IT WAS BROUGHT TO THE
  • 00:12:57.280 --> 00:12:58.170
  • NATIONAL ATTENTION, FEDERAL
  • 00:12:58.170 --> 00:13:00.160
  • MONEY STARTED COMING IN, STATE
  • 00:13:00.160 --> 00:13:01.170
  • MONEY WAS APPROPRIATED FOR IT,
  • 00:13:01.170 --> 00:13:03.020
  • AND THERE WAS A LOCAL FOCUS ON
  • 00:13:03.020 --> 00:13:05.070
  • IT.
  • 00:13:06.070 --> 00:13:09.070
  • SO, THAT'S AN EXAMPLE WHERE ALL
  • 00:13:09.070 --> 00:13:09.290
  • THREE LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT, UH,
  • 00:13:09.290 --> 00:13:11.090
  • WORKED TOGETHER TO TRY TO FIX A
  • 00:13:11.090 --> 00:13:12.050
  • PROBLEM.
  • 00:13:12.050 --> 00:13:15.050
  • - DR. HANNA-ATTISHA: OUR
  • 00:13:15.050 --> 00:13:15.260
  • INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS MASSIVE
  • 00:13:15.260 --> 00:13:16.270
  • INVESTMENT.
  • 00:13:16.270 --> 00:13:17.130
  • WE THINK OUR ROADS AND OUR
  • 00:13:17.130 --> 00:13:18.150
  • BRIDGES ARE FALLING APART, BUT
  • 00:13:18.150 --> 00:13:19.130
  • WHAT'S UNDERNEATH IS EVEN MORE
  • 00:13:19.130 --> 00:13:20.090
  • TROUBLING.
  • 00:13:20.090 --> 00:13:23.020
  • AND FLINT IS A GLARING EXAMPLE
  • 00:13:23.020 --> 00:13:24.150
  • OF WHAT CAN HAPPEN WHEN WE FAIL
  • 00:13:24.150 --> 00:13:25.210
  • TO INVEST IN INFRASTRUCTURE.
  • 00:13:25.210 --> 00:13:27.270
  • - KELLY: BUT NOT EVERYONE
  • 00:13:27.270 --> 00:13:29.020
  • BLAMES A LACK OF FUNDING FOR
  • 00:13:29.020 --> 00:13:30.210
  • THE FLINT DISASTER.
  • 00:13:30.210 --> 00:13:32.270
  • SOME BELIEVE AN INDEPENDENT
  • 00:13:32.270 --> 00:13:33.230
  • COUNCIL OF EXPERTS SHOULD HAVE
  • 00:13:33.230 --> 00:13:36.010
  • BEEN BROUGHT IN DURING THE
  • 00:13:36.010 --> 00:13:38.290
  • - TOM DORAN: I'M AS CONFIDENT
  • 00:13:41.050 --> 00:13:42.170
  • AS I COULD BE THAT ONE OF THOSE
  • 00:13:42.170 --> 00:13:43.090
  • PEOPLE WOULD HAVE IDENTIFIED
  • 00:13:43.090 --> 00:13:44.170
  • EXACTLY WHAT OCCURRED AND IT
  • 00:13:44.170 --> 00:13:46.100
  • COULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED
  • 00:13:46.100 --> 00:13:47.080
  • SO, IT WAS A HUMAN PROBLEM; IT
  • 00:13:53.040 --> 00:13:53.260
  • WAS NOT AN INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 00:13:53.260 --> 00:13:54.150
  • - CHRIS EDWARDS: I THINK ONE
  • 00:13:57.040 --> 00:13:57.250
  • OF THE PROBLEMS WITH THAT WAS
  • 00:13:57.250 --> 00:13:58.160
  • THAT ALL THREE LEVELS OF
  • 00:13:58.160 --> 00:13:59.040
  • GOVERNMENT WERE INVOLVED IN THE
  • 00:13:59.040 --> 00:13:59.260
  • FLINT WATER SYSTEM, EITHER, YOU
  • 00:13:59.260 --> 00:14:00.200
  • KNOW, BUILDING AND OPERATING
  • 00:14:00.200 --> 00:14:02.000
  • IT, OR MAINTAINING, AND
  • 00:14:02.000 --> 00:14:03.100
  • SUPPOSEDLY LOOKING OUT FOR THE
  • 00:14:03.100 --> 00:14:04.160
  • I THINK THAT CAUSED
  • 00:14:07.020 --> 00:14:07.180
  • IRRESPONSIBILITY THAT WHEN YOU
  • 00:14:07.180 --> 00:14:08.270
  • GET-- YOU KNOW, IF ALL THREE
  • 00:14:08.270 --> 00:14:09.240
  • LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT ARE
  • 00:14:09.240 --> 00:14:10.120
  • INVOLVED, THEN, REALLY, NO ONE
  • 00:14:10.120 --> 00:14:11.180
  • IS RESPONSIBLE.
  • 00:14:11.180 --> 00:14:13.240
  • - KELLY: REGARDLESS OF WHO'S
  • 00:14:13.240 --> 00:14:15.010
  • TO BLAME, FLINT AND MICHIGAN
  • 00:14:15.010 --> 00:14:17.060
  • ARE SEEN AS MICROCOSMS OF A
  • 00:14:17.060 --> 00:14:18.210
  • MUCH BIGGER INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 00:14:18.210 --> 00:14:20.190
  • PROBLEM HERE IN THE U.S.
  • 00:14:21.030 --> 00:14:24.030
  • - DR. HANNA-ATTISHA: LEAD IN
  • 00:14:24.030 --> 00:14:25.030
  • PLUMBING IS NOT A FLINT
  • 00:14:25.030 --> 00:14:26.060
  • PROBLEM; IT'S A NATIONAL
  • 00:14:26.060 --> 00:14:26.240
  • PROBLEM.
  • 00:14:26.240 --> 00:14:27.200
  • WE USE LEAD IN PLUMBING
  • 00:14:27.200 --> 00:14:29.210
  • THROUGHOUT THIS NATION,
  • 00:14:29.210 --> 00:14:30.190
  • ESPECIALLY IN THE NORTHEAST AND
  • 00:14:30.190 --> 00:14:31.190
  • THE MIDWEST.
  • 00:14:31.190 --> 00:14:33.030
  • WE MANDATED IT IN SOME
  • 00:14:33.030 --> 00:14:34.050
  • COMMUNITIES THAT THEY HAD TO
  • 00:14:34.050 --> 00:14:35.140
  • USE LEAD IN THEIR PLUMBING.
  • 00:14:35.140 --> 00:14:37.020
  • - MIKE: WE HAVE A NATIONAL
  • 00:14:37.020 --> 00:14:37.240
  • CRISIS, IN TERMS OF
  • 00:14:37.240 --> 00:14:38.100
  • INFRASTRUCTURE.
  • 00:14:38.100 --> 00:14:39.130
  • ALL LEVELS OF GOVERNMENT HAVE
  • 00:14:39.130 --> 00:14:40.230
  • TO MAKE INFRASTRUCTURE A
  • 00:14:40.230 --> 00:14:42.200
  • PRIORITY.
  • 00:14:42.200 --> 00:14:43.200
  • - KELLY: BUT NOT EVERY
  • 00:14:43.200 --> 00:14:45.170
  • INFRASTRUCTURE EXPERT THINKS
  • 00:14:45.170 --> 00:14:46.260
  • THE PROBLEM IS QUITE SO
  • 00:14:46.260 --> 00:14:47.180
  • CATASTROPHIC.
  • 00:14:47.180 --> 00:14:50.000
  • - VERONIQUE: WHEN YOU LOOK AT
  • 00:14:50.000 --> 00:14:51.090
  • GOVERNMENT DATA, THE DATA DO
  • 00:14:51.090 --> 00:14:51.290
  • NOT AT ALL SHOW THAT OUR
  • 00:14:51.290 --> 00:14:54.220
  • SO, FOR INSTANCE, IT SHOWS THAT
  • 00:14:58.010 --> 00:14:59.070
  • 7.5 PERCENT OF URBAN
  • 00:14:59.070 --> 00:15:01.110
  • INTERSTATES ARE IN POOR
  • 00:15:01.110 --> 00:15:02.240
  • CONDITION.
  • 00:15:02.240 --> 00:15:04.260
  • ONLY 2 PERCENT OF RURAL
  • 00:15:04.260 --> 00:15:05.140
  • INTERSTATES ARE IN POOR
  • 00:15:05.140 --> 00:15:07.070
  • CONDITION.
  • 00:15:07.070 --> 00:15:07.280
  • WHEN IT COMES TO BRIDGES, 7.5
  • 00:15:07.280 --> 00:15:09.280
  • PERCENT OF BRIDGES HAVE
  • 00:15:09.280 --> 00:15:11.260
  • AND IT'S A LITTLE OVER 18
  • 00:15:15.090 --> 00:15:17.040
  • PERCENT WHO HAVE FUNCTION
  • 00:15:17.040 --> 00:15:18.270
  • PROBLEMS -- THEY'RE EITHER TOO
  • 00:15:18.270 --> 00:15:20.150
  • NARROW OR TOO LOW.
  • 00:15:20.150 --> 00:15:22.120
  • - CHRIS: AMERICAN HIGHWAYS,
  • 00:15:22.120 --> 00:15:23.270
  • ESPECIALLY THE INTERSTATES,
  • 00:15:23.270 --> 00:15:25.140
  • HAVE GOT BETTER AND BETTER OVER
  • 00:15:25.140 --> 00:15:26.170
  • THE YEARS.
  • 00:15:26.170 --> 00:15:27.030
  • THE GOVERNMENT ACTUALLY
  • 00:15:27.030 --> 00:15:28.070
  • MEASURES HOW MANY POTHOLES AND
  • 00:15:28.070 --> 00:15:29.260
  • HOW SMOOTH THE SURFACE OF THE
  • 00:15:29.260 --> 00:15:30.280
  • INTERSTATES IS.
  • 00:15:30.280 --> 00:15:32.240
  • AND THEY'VE GOT BETTER OVER THE
  • 00:15:32.240 --> 00:15:33.160
  • LAST FEW DECADES.
  • 00:15:33.160 --> 00:15:34.240
  • THE ROADS HAVE GOTTEN MORE
  • 00:15:34.240 --> 00:15:36.020
  • CONGESTED, BUT THE ACTUAL
  • 00:15:36.020 --> 00:15:37.120
  • QUALITY HAS IMPROVED.
  • 00:15:37.120 --> 00:15:39.110
  • SIMILAR WITH U.S. BRIDGES.
  • 00:15:39.110 --> 00:15:41.100
  • THERE'S ABOUT 600.000 HIGHWAY
  • 00:15:41.100 --> 00:15:43.050
  • BRIDGES IN THE UNITED STATES.
  • 00:15:43.050 --> 00:15:44.130
  • THEY'VE BEEN GETTING BETTER AND
  • 00:15:44.130 --> 00:15:46.020
  • BETTER OVER THE YEARS.
  • 00:15:46.020 --> 00:15:47.290
  • HOWEVER, SOME INFRASTRUCTURE IS
  • 00:15:47.290 --> 00:15:49.080
  • STARTING TO FALL APART.
  • 00:15:49.080 --> 00:15:50.200
  • SUBWAY AND LIGHT RAIL SYSTEMS
  • 00:15:50.200 --> 00:15:52.150
  • ACROSS THE COUNTRY ARE HAVING
  • 00:15:52.150 --> 00:15:53.080
  • REAL PROBLEMS --
  • 00:15:53.080 --> 00:15:54.150
  • SUBWAY SYSTEMS IN NEW YORK
  • 00:15:54.150 --> 00:15:56.170
  • AND WASHINGTON, D.C.,
  • 00:15:56.170 --> 00:15:57.040
  • FOR EXAMPLE.
  • 00:15:57.040 --> 00:15:57.260
  • THERE'S A HUGE AMOUNT OF
  • 00:15:57.260 --> 00:15:59.070
  • DEFERRED MAINTENANCE -- IN
  • 00:15:59.070 --> 00:15:59.290
  • OTHER WORDS, MAINTENANCE THAT
  • 00:15:59.290 --> 00:16:01.230
  • THEY HAVEN'T DONE.
  • 00:16:01.230 --> 00:16:02.270
  • AND SO, THE SYSTEMS ARE
  • 00:16:02.270 --> 00:16:03.150
  • STARTING TO BREAK DOWN MORE.
  • 00:16:03.150 --> 00:16:04.160
  • - TOM: OUR INFRASTRUCTURE,
  • 00:16:04.160 --> 00:16:06.290
  • TODAY, IS VASTER AND MORE
  • 00:16:06.290 --> 00:16:07.180
  • COMPLEX THAN IT'S EVER BEEN --
  • 00:16:07.180 --> 00:16:09.250
  • MILLIONS OF MILES OF ROADS, AND
  • 00:16:10.080 --> 00:16:13.080
  • SEWERS, AND WATER MAINS, AND
  • 00:16:13.080 --> 00:16:15.120
  • THOUSANDS OF THOUSANDS OF
  • 00:16:15.120 --> 00:16:17.270
  • WATER-TREATMENT PLANTS AND
  • 00:16:17.270 --> 00:16:18.170
  • WASTE-WATER PLANTS.
  • 00:16:18.260 --> 00:16:21.260
  • AND MOST OF IT IS PERFORMING
  • 00:16:21.260 --> 00:16:22.170
  • THE WAY IT IS SUPPOSED TO
  • 00:16:22.170 --> 00:16:23.110
  • PERFORM.
  • 00:16:23.110 --> 00:16:23.260
  • SO, A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THAT
  • 00:16:23.260 --> 00:16:25.210
  • IS ALWAYS GOING TO BE FAILING.
  • 00:16:25.280 --> 00:16:28.280
  • AND AN EVEN SMALLER PERCENTAGE
  • 00:16:28.280 --> 00:16:31.010
  • IS GONNA BE IN CRISIS.
  • 00:16:31.010 --> 00:16:33.010
  • WE KNOW THAT OUR ROADS AND
  • 00:16:33.010 --> 00:16:34.220
  • INTERSECTIONS ARE SAFER.
  • 00:16:34.220 --> 00:16:37.170
  • NOTWITHSTANDING INCIDENTS LIKE
  • 00:16:37.170 --> 00:16:38.280
  • FLINT, WE KNOW THAT ALMOST ALL
  • 00:16:38.280 --> 00:16:41.090
  • OF OUR WATER IS SAFER AND MORE
  • 00:16:41.090 --> 00:16:42.270
  • RELIABLE.
  • 00:16:42.270 --> 00:16:44.190
  • WE KNOW THAT OUR WASTE WATER'S
  • 00:16:44.190 --> 00:16:45.160
  • BEING TREATED BETTER.
  • 00:16:45.160 --> 00:16:46.240
  • EVEN OUR STORM WATER IS-- IS
  • 00:16:46.240 --> 00:16:48.080
  • BETTER NOW WHEN IT GETS TO
  • 00:16:48.080 --> 00:16:50.020
  • RIVERS AND STREAMS.
  • 00:16:50.020 --> 00:16:51.010
  • ONE OF MY ARGUMENTS IS: IF OUR
  • 00:16:51.010 --> 00:16:52.250
  • INFRASTRUCTURE IS CRUMBLING,
  • 00:16:52.250 --> 00:16:53.150
  • THEN WHY IS OUR ENVIRONMENT,
  • 00:16:53.150 --> 00:16:55.200
  • HERE IN THE UNITED STATES,
  • 00:16:55.200 --> 00:16:57.090
  • CLEANER THAN IT'S BEEN IN OVER
  • 00:16:57.090 --> 00:16:58.230
  • A HUNDRED YEARS?
  • 00:16:58.230 --> 00:17:00.220
  • TO FOCUS EXCLUSIVELY ON OLD
  • 00:17:00.220 --> 00:17:02.140
  • INFRASTRUCTURE AND ON CRISES OR
  • 00:17:03.210 --> 00:17:06.210
  • NEAR-CRISES EVENTS IS NOT THE
  • 00:17:06.210 --> 00:17:07.140
  • BEST WAY TO APPLY LIMITED
  • 00:17:07.140 --> 00:17:10.100
  • DOLLARS.
  • 00:17:10.100 --> 00:17:12.260
  • [SPINNING SOUND]
  • 00:17:12.260 --> 00:17:14.040
  • - KELLY: IT IS THOSE LIMITED
  • 00:17:14.040 --> 00:17:15.020
  • DOLLARS, MORE THAN ANYTHING
  • 00:17:15.020 --> 00:17:15.220
  • ELSE, THAT THE INFRASTRUCTURE
  • 00:17:15.220 --> 00:17:17.020
  • DEBATE RESTS ON.
  • 00:17:17.020 --> 00:17:19.170
  • WHETHER THE EXPERTS BELIEVE
  • 00:17:19.170 --> 00:17:20.240
  • THAT AMERICAN INFRASTRUCTURE IS
  • 00:17:20.240 --> 00:17:22.160
  • CRUMBLING TO PIECES ACROSS THE
  • 00:17:22.160 --> 00:17:24.030
  • BOARD, OR THEY THINK IT'S IN
  • 00:17:24.030 --> 00:17:26.070
  • BETTER SHAPE THAN MANY WOULD
  • 00:17:26.070 --> 00:17:28.170
  • HAVE YOU BELIEVE, THEY DO AGREE
  • 00:17:28.170 --> 00:17:29.180
  • THAT THERE IS STILL WORK TO BE
  • 00:17:29.180 --> 00:17:32.060
  • DONE.
  • 00:17:32.060 --> 00:17:33.230
  • SO, THE BIG QUESTION IS: WHO
  • 00:17:33.230 --> 00:17:35.210
  • SHOULD PAY FOR IT?
  • 00:17:35.260 --> 00:17:38.260
  • - VERONIQUE: PEOPLE HAVE
  • 00:17:38.260 --> 00:17:41.050
  • GENERALLY POSITIVE FEELINGS
  • 00:17:41.050 --> 00:17:42.030
  • ABOUT THE IDEA OF INVESTING IN
  • 00:17:42.030 --> 00:17:42.270
  • INFRASTRUCTURE.
  • 00:17:42.270 --> 00:17:44.260
  • BUT THEY DON'T REALLY THINK
  • 00:17:44.260 --> 00:17:45.230
  • FURTHER ABOUT WHO SHOULD
  • 00:17:45.230 --> 00:17:48.180
  • ACTUALLY BE DOING THE INVESTING
  • 00:17:48.180 --> 00:17:49.210
  • AND WHO SHOULD BE PAYING FOR
  • 00:17:49.210 --> 00:17:50.110
  • IT.
  • 00:17:50.110 --> 00:17:52.040
  • [SOUND OF MACHINERY]
  • 00:17:52.040 --> 00:17:54.100
  • ECONOMISTS HAVE NO DISAGREEMENT,
  • 00:17:54.100 --> 00:17:55.040
  • USUALLY, ON THE IDEA THAT GOOD
  • 00:17:55.040 --> 00:17:57.150
  • INFRASTRUCTURE SPENDING CAN
  • 00:17:57.150 --> 00:17:58.150
  • ACTUALLY BRING A LOT OF
  • 00:17:58.150 --> 00:17:59.290
  • ECONOMIC GROWTH TO AN ECONOMY.
  • 00:18:00.200 --> 00:18:03.200
  • BUT WHERE THINGS GET MUDDY IS
  • 00:18:03.200 --> 00:18:04.250
  • DEPENDING ON WHERE THE MONEY IS
  • 00:18:04.250 --> 00:18:06.050
  • SPENT.
  • 00:18:07.170 --> 00:18:10.170
  • - KRISTINA: WE ARE
  • 00:18:10.170 --> 00:18:11.030
  • UNDERINVESTING IN OUR
  • 00:18:11.030 --> 00:18:11.200
  • INFRASTRUCTURE BY ALMOST HALF,
  • 00:18:11.200 --> 00:18:12.120
  • SO WE WOULD NEED TO INCREASE
  • 00:18:12.120 --> 00:18:13.030
  • OUR INVESTMENT BY $2 TRILLION
  • 00:18:13.030 --> 00:18:14.270
  • BUT IF WE FAIL TO MAKE THAT
  • 00:18:18.040 --> 00:18:19.090
  • INVESTMENT, IT WILL COST OUR
  • 00:18:19.090 --> 00:18:20.000
  • GDP $3.9 TRILLION.
  • 00:18:20.080 --> 00:18:23.080
  • THAT'S THE COST IMPACT ON A
  • 00:18:25.200 --> 00:18:26.100
  • NATIONAL SCALE.
  • 00:18:26.100 --> 00:18:28.210
  • THE CHALLENGE ON FUNDING RELIES
  • 00:18:28.210 --> 00:18:30.180
  • WITH EVERYONE.
  • 00:18:30.180 --> 00:18:31.010
  • IT'S STATE, IT'S LOCAL, IT'S
  • 00:18:31.010 --> 00:18:32.110
  • FEDERAL, AND IT'S ALSO PRIVATE
  • 00:18:32.110 --> 00:18:33.200
  • INVESTMENT.
  • 00:18:33.200 --> 00:18:34.190
  • THE SOLUTION WILL COME FROM ALL
  • 00:18:34.190 --> 00:18:36.070
  • FOUR OF THOSE GROUPS COMING
  • 00:18:36.070 --> 00:18:38.080
  • TOGETHER TO INCREASE OUR
  • 00:18:38.080 --> 00:18:38.270
  • - MIKE: STATE AND FEDERAL
  • 00:18:41.280 --> 00:18:42.170
  • MONIES HELP TO BUILD OUR
  • 00:18:42.170 --> 00:18:43.060
  • THERE ARE OPPORTUNITIES TO
  • 00:18:45.230 --> 00:18:46.200
  • INCENTIVIZE LOCALS BY OFFERING
  • 00:18:47.010 --> 00:18:50.010
  • THEM SOME SORT OF SUPPORT.
  • 00:18:50.010 --> 00:18:52.070
  • IT DOESN'T HAVE TO BE LARGE
  • 00:18:52.070 --> 00:18:54.220
  • PERCENTAGES, BUT, SOME SORT OF
  • 00:18:54.220 --> 00:18:56.060
  • SUPPORT AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL,
  • 00:18:56.060 --> 00:18:57.200
  • SOME SORT OF SUPPORT AT THE
  • 00:18:57.200 --> 00:18:58.230
  • STATE LEVEL.
  • 00:18:58.230 --> 00:19:00.100
  • IF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY COMES UP
  • 00:19:00.100 --> 00:19:02.150
  • WITH THE BULK OF THE MONEY,
  • 00:19:02.150 --> 00:19:03.160
  • HELP THEM GET OVER THE HURDLE
  • 00:19:03.160 --> 00:19:04.280
  • - CHRIS: YOU KNOW, THE
  • 00:19:07.270 --> 00:19:08.150
  • GREATEST SHOULD BE, REALLY,
  • 00:19:08.150 --> 00:19:09.170
  • LEFT UP TO STATE AND LOCAL
  • 00:19:09.170 --> 00:19:11.050
  • GOVERNMENTS 'CAUSE THEY KNOW
  • 00:19:11.050 --> 00:19:12.010
  • WHERE THEIR NEEDS ARE.
  • 00:19:12.010 --> 00:19:13.060
  • ONE OF THE PROBLEMS TODAY IS
  • 00:19:13.060 --> 00:19:14.130
  • THAT MUCH OF THIS DEBATE TAKES
  • 00:19:14.130 --> 00:19:15.250
  • PEOPLE THINK THAT WASHINGTON
  • 00:19:18.020 --> 00:19:18.230
  • CAN SOLVE ALL OF THESE
  • 00:19:18.230 --> 00:19:19.110
  • PROBLEMS.
  • 00:19:19.110 --> 00:19:19.230
  • BUT, REALLY, WASHINGTON'S SO
  • 00:19:19.230 --> 00:19:21.080
  • DISTRACTED THESE DAYS.
  • 00:19:21.080 --> 00:19:22.280
  • IT'S RUNNING BIG DEFICITS.
  • 00:19:22.280 --> 00:19:24.050
  • IT CAN'T REALLY BE THE SOLUTION
  • 00:19:24.050 --> 00:19:26.020
  • - TOM: I THINK THAT WHEN YOU
  • 00:19:28.170 --> 00:19:29.080
  • LOOK AT THE TYPE OF
  • 00:19:29.080 --> 00:19:30.240
  • INFRASTRUCTURE, THE COST OF THE
  • 00:19:30.240 --> 00:19:32.160
  • PROJECT, WHAT THE SCOPE OF THE
  • 00:19:32.160 --> 00:19:34.080
  • WORK IS, THERE'S A ROLE FOR THE
  • 00:19:34.080 --> 00:19:36.050
  • FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, AND STATE,
  • 00:19:36.050 --> 00:19:36.260
  • AND LOCAL.
  • 00:19:36.260 --> 00:19:38.140
  • - VERONIQUE: WELL, I THINK WE
  • 00:19:38.140 --> 00:19:40.190
  • SHOULD PRIVATIZE...AS MUCH AS
  • 00:19:40.190 --> 00:19:41.220
  • AND THEN, THE FEDERAL
  • 00:19:45.140 --> 00:19:46.010
  • GOVERNMENT SHOULD LIFT, AS MUCH
  • 00:19:46.010 --> 00:19:46.290
  • AS POSSIBLE, THE REGULATORY
  • 00:19:46.290 --> 00:19:48.200
  • BARRIERS TOWARD A PRIVATE AND
  • 00:19:48.200 --> 00:19:51.070
  • PUBLIC PARTNERSHIP AT THE STATE
  • 00:19:51.070 --> 00:19:53.010
  • AND LOCAL LEVEL.
  • 00:19:53.010 --> 00:19:53.290
  • - KELLY: PUBLIC-PRIVATE
  • 00:19:53.290 --> 00:19:55.160
  • PARTNERSHIPS, OR P3s FOR SHORT,
  • 00:19:55.160 --> 00:19:58.130
  • ARE LONG-TERM CONTRACTS BETWEEN
  • 00:19:58.130 --> 00:19:59.050
  • PRIVATE COMPANIES AND
  • 00:20:00.000 --> 00:20:03.000
  • GOVERNMENTS.
  • 00:20:03.000 --> 00:20:03.180
  • FOR EXAMPLE, A PRIVATE COMPANY
  • 00:20:03.180 --> 00:20:04.260
  • WOULD PROVIDE A PORTION OF THE
  • 00:20:04.260 --> 00:20:06.090
  • FINANCING TO BUILD OR EXPAND A
  • 00:20:06.090 --> 00:20:07.270
  • HIGHWAY.
  • 00:20:07.270 --> 00:20:10.110
  • THEY WOULD THEN MANAGE THE
  • 00:20:10.110 --> 00:20:11.150
  • HIGHWAY LANES WHEN THE PROJECT
  • 00:20:11.150 --> 00:20:13.050
  • IS COMPLETE.
  • 00:20:13.050 --> 00:20:14.210
  • THIS TYPE OF PARTNERSHIP IS
  • 00:20:14.210 --> 00:20:16.170
  • OFTEN DEBATED IN CITIES ACROSS
  • 00:20:16.170 --> 00:20:18.170
  • THE COUNTRY.
  • 00:20:18.170 --> 00:20:20.140
  • - CHRIS: THE ADVANTAGE OF THIS
  • 00:20:20.140 --> 00:20:21.060
  • IS THAT, YOU KNOW, GOVERNMENTS
  • 00:20:21.060 --> 00:20:22.110
  • ARE STRAPPED OFTEN FOR MONEY.
  • 00:20:22.110 --> 00:20:24.060
  • THEY DON'T WANNA RAISE TAXES,
  • 00:20:24.060 --> 00:20:25.250
  • SO THE PRIVATE SECTOR CAN
  • 00:20:25.250 --> 00:20:27.230
  • PROVIDE THE FINANCING.
  • 00:20:27.230 --> 00:20:29.000
  • THEN, YOU GET THE BETTER COST
  • 00:20:29.000 --> 00:20:30.070
  • CONTROL AND BETTER MANAGEMENT
  • 00:20:30.070 --> 00:20:32.090
  • OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR.
  • 00:20:32.090 --> 00:20:34.100
  • - VERONIQUE: THERE'S NO REASON
  • 00:20:34.100 --> 00:20:35.230
  • WHY THE FINANCING SHOULD ALWAYS
  • 00:20:35.230 --> 00:20:37.260
  • BE DONE WITH THE HELP OF THE
  • 00:20:37.260 --> 00:20:39.160
  • FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.
  • 00:20:39.160 --> 00:20:40.120
  • AND, AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE, IT
  • 00:20:40.120 --> 00:20:42.180
  • SHOULD BE DRIVEN BY PEOPLE WHO
  • 00:20:42.180 --> 00:20:45.120
  • ARE USING THE MONEY, OR PEOPLE
  • 00:20:45.120 --> 00:20:47.190
  • WHO ARE GOING TO BE FOOTING
  • 00:20:47.190 --> 00:20:48.090
  • THAT BILL, WHICH IS WHY THE
  • 00:20:48.090 --> 00:20:49.290
  • LOWER LEVEL OF GOVERNMENT, WHEN
  • 00:20:49.290 --> 00:20:51.270
  • THE DECISION AND THE FINANCING
  • 00:20:51.270 --> 00:20:53.190
  • IS MET, THE BETTER PROJECTS YOU
  • 00:20:53.190 --> 00:20:54.110
  • WILL GET.
  • 00:20:54.110 --> 00:20:57.080
  • - MIKE: I THINK THE TIME HAS
  • 00:20:57.080 --> 00:20:59.150
  • COME FOR PRIVATE INVESTMENT AND
  • 00:20:59.150 --> 00:21:01.020
  • INFRASTRUCTURE.
  • 00:21:01.020 --> 00:21:02.110
  • THERE IS CORPORATE BENEFIT FROM
  • 00:21:02.110 --> 00:21:03.140
  • INFRASTRUCTURE.
  • 00:21:03.140 --> 00:21:05.080
  • AND, OBVIOUSLY, THEY'RE PAYING
  • 00:21:05.080 --> 00:21:06.270
  • A USER FEE, OF SORTS, TO USE
  • 00:21:06.270 --> 00:21:09.090
  • OUR SYSTEMS.
  • 00:21:09.090 --> 00:21:10.190
  • BUT WHEN THEY ARE FAILING, IN
  • 00:21:10.190 --> 00:21:12.070
  • INHIBITING THE ECONOMIC
  • 00:21:12.070 --> 00:21:14.050
  • BENEFITS OF THOSE BUSINESSES,
  • 00:21:14.050 --> 00:21:15.260
  • OBVIOUSLY THOSE BUSINESSES NEED
  • 00:21:15.260 --> 00:21:17.210
  • TO CONSIDER THE POTENTIAL
  • 00:21:17.210 --> 00:21:20.180
  • IMPACTS OF A PRIVATE INVESTMENT
  • 00:21:20.180 --> 00:21:22.150
  • THAT ENCOURAGES A PUBLIC
  • 00:21:22.150 --> 00:21:25.020
  • INVESTMENT AT THE SAME TIME.
  • 00:21:25.020 --> 00:21:27.090
  • THOSE TYPES OF PARTNERSHIPS
  • 00:21:27.090 --> 00:21:28.100
  • HAVE TO BE DEVELOPED.
  • 00:21:28.100 --> 00:21:30.070
  • WE HAVE TO WORK TOWARDS, UM,
  • 00:21:30.070 --> 00:21:32.130
  • MORE OF THAT TYPE OF THINKING.
  • 00:21:32.130 --> 00:21:34.120
  • - KELLY: NOT EVERYONE IS ON
  • 00:21:34.120 --> 00:21:36.070
  • BOARD WITH P3s.
  • 00:21:36.100 --> 00:21:39.100
  • THERE ARE A FEW WHO CLAIM THAT
  • 00:21:39.100 --> 00:21:40.110
  • CERTAIN PARTNERSHIPS CAN BE
  • 00:21:40.110 --> 00:21:41.160
  • DANGEROUS.
  • 00:21:41.160 --> 00:21:43.090
  • FOR INSTANCE, CONSIDER THE
  • 00:21:43.090 --> 00:21:45.030
  • ELIZABETH RIVER TUNNELS PROJECT
  • 00:21:45.030 --> 00:21:47.080
  • IN SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA.
  • 00:21:47.210 --> 00:21:50.210
  • - DR. JAMES V. KOCH: ONE OF
  • 00:21:50.210 --> 00:21:52.140
  • THE MOST PROMINENT SOLUTIONS
  • 00:21:52.140 --> 00:21:53.220
  • INVOLVED EXPANDING TWO TUNNELS
  • 00:21:53.220 --> 00:21:56.080
  • THAT GO BETWEEN NORFOLK AND
  • 00:21:56.080 --> 00:21:58.030
  • PORTSMOUTH -- THE DOWNTOWN
  • 00:21:58.030 --> 00:22:00.080
  • TUNNEL, THE MIDTOWN TUNNEL --
  • 00:22:00.080 --> 00:22:02.010
  • AND THEY'RE CRITICAL PIECES OF
  • 00:22:02.010 --> 00:22:03.100
  • INFRASTRUCTURE THAT 50.000-
  • 00:22:03.100 --> 00:22:05.000
  • 100.000 PEOPLE, DEPENDING ON
  • 00:22:05.000 --> 00:22:06.280
  • THE DEAL -- THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE
  • 00:22:10.050 --> 00:22:11.070
  • PARTNERSHIP -- THE STATE DID
  • 00:22:11.070 --> 00:22:13.010
  • WITH THE ELIZABETH RIVER
  • 00:22:13.010 --> 00:22:14.100
  • COMPANY -- THIS ISN'T MY
  • 00:22:14.100 --> 00:22:16.190
  • OPINION, THIS IS EXPERTS'
  • 00:22:16.190 --> 00:22:18.290
  • OPINION -- IT WAS ONE OF THE
  • 00:22:18.290 --> 00:22:19.260
  • WORST PUBLIC-PRIVATE
  • 00:22:19.260 --> 00:22:21.070
  • IT IS FINANCIALLY UNATTRACTIVE
  • 00:22:24.010 --> 00:22:24.230
  • TO THE STATE.
  • 00:22:25.150 --> 00:22:28.150
  • IT IMPOSES LARGE COSTS ON
  • 00:22:28.150 --> 00:22:30.040
  • REGIONAL DRIVERS.
  • 00:22:30.040 --> 00:22:31.150
  • IT LASTS ABOUT 60 YEARS AND IT
  • 00:22:31.150 --> 00:22:33.270
  • HAS INFLATION ACCELERATORS
  • 00:22:33.270 --> 00:22:35.280
  • BUILT INTO IT THAT WILL
  • 00:22:35.280 --> 00:22:37.130
  • INCREASE THE TOLLS THAT PEOPLE
  • 00:22:37.130 --> 00:22:40.090
  • ARE PAYING AT AT LEAST 3.5
  • 00:22:41.240 --> 00:22:44.240
  • PERCENT OR HIGHER, IF THE CPI
  • 00:22:44.240 --> 00:22:45.150
  • INCREASE IS HIGHER.
  • 00:22:45.150 --> 00:22:47.180
  • SO, IT'S SOMETHING THAT IS
  • 00:22:47.180 --> 00:22:48.250
  • GOING TO GET WORSE AND WORSE
  • 00:22:48.250 --> 00:22:49.160
  • OVER TIME.
  • 00:22:49.160 --> 00:22:51.120
  • - KELLY: JAMES KOCH CLAIMS
  • 00:22:51.120 --> 00:22:52.130
  • THAT THE TOLLS UNFAIRLY
  • 00:22:52.130 --> 00:22:53.250
  • DISADVANTAGE ONE OF THE POOREST
  • 00:22:53.250 --> 00:22:55.070
  • CITIES IN THE REGION, ONE THAT
  • 00:22:55.070 --> 00:22:57.050
  • THEY WERE SUPPOSED TO HELP.
  • 00:22:57.050 --> 00:22:59.190
  • - DR. KOCH: THE BEST MEASURE
  • 00:22:59.190 --> 00:23:00.120
  • OF WHO'S AFFECTED BY THIS
  • 00:23:00.120 --> 00:23:02.200
  • RELATES TO HOW MANY PEOPLE FROM
  • 00:23:02.200 --> 00:23:04.160
  • THAT CITY GO BACK AND FORTH
  • 00:23:04.160 --> 00:23:06.250
  • THROUGH THE TUNNELS.
  • 00:23:06.250 --> 00:23:08.040
  • NOW, IF YOU LOOK AT THE REGION
  • 00:23:08.040 --> 00:23:09.070
  • AS A WHOLE, ALMOST 65 PERCENT
  • 00:23:09.070 --> 00:23:10.240
  • OF PEOPLE IN THE REGION, EVERY
  • 00:23:10.240 --> 00:23:13.040
  • DAY, COMMUTE TO A DIFFERENT
  • 00:23:13.040 --> 00:23:14.090
  • JURISDICTION TO GO TO WORK.
  • 00:23:14.120 --> 00:23:17.120
  • SO, WE'RE REALLY TALKING ABOUT
  • 00:23:17.120 --> 00:23:19.090
  • GOING ACROSS CITY LINES.
  • 00:23:19.090 --> 00:23:21.030
  • WELL, THE CITY OF PORTSMOUTH,
  • 00:23:21.030 --> 00:23:22.120
  • IN PARTICULAR, IS A
  • 00:23:22.120 --> 00:23:23.160
  • LOWER-INCOME COMMUNITY WHERE
  • 00:23:23.160 --> 00:23:25.110
  • ALMOST 20 PERCENT OF THE
  • 00:23:25.110 --> 00:23:26.250
  • POPULATION IS BELOW THE POVERTY
  • 00:23:26.250 --> 00:23:28.120
  • LINE.
  • 00:23:28.120 --> 00:23:30.040
  • THE...PER CAPITA INCOME THERE
  • 00:23:30.040 --> 00:23:32.130
  • IS ONLY $24.000 A YEAR.
  • 00:23:32.130 --> 00:23:34.130
  • WELL, UNFORTUNATELY, FOR
  • 00:23:34.130 --> 00:23:36.100
  • PORTSMOUTH, THEY HAVE THE
  • 00:23:36.100 --> 00:23:37.210
  • LARGEST PERCENTAGE OF THEIR
  • 00:23:37.210 --> 00:23:38.240
  • WORKFORCE GOING BACK AND FORTH
  • 00:23:38.240 --> 00:23:40.010
  • THROUGH THE TUNNEL.
  • 00:23:40.010 --> 00:23:41.090
  • SO, WE'RE TALKING ABOUT A CITY
  • 00:23:41.090 --> 00:23:43.050
  • THAT'S PROBABLY LEAST ABLE TO
  • 00:23:43.050 --> 00:23:44.270
  • AFFORD IT HAVING TO PAY, MORE
  • 00:23:44.270 --> 00:23:47.230
  • OFTEN, THE GREATEST SHARE OF
  • 00:23:47.230 --> 00:23:49.130
  • WELL, IF A TYPICAL COMMUTER
  • 00:23:53.010 --> 00:23:54.150
  • GOES BACK AND FORTH DURING
  • 00:23:54.150 --> 00:23:55.040
  • PRIME TIMES, THEY'LL END UP
  • 00:23:55.040 --> 00:23:57.050
  • PAYING A LITTLE BIT MORE THAN A
  • 00:23:57.050 --> 00:23:58.170
  • THOUSAND DOLLARS A YEAR IN
  • 00:23:58.170 --> 00:24:00.070
  • TOLLS, IF THEY WORK 200 DAYS A
  • 00:24:00.070 --> 00:24:01.240
  • A THOUSAND DOLLARS FOR SOMEBODY
  • 00:24:04.050 --> 00:24:04.270
  • EARNING $24.000 -- THAT'S A BIG
  • 00:24:04.270 --> 00:24:06.180
  • HIT!
  • 00:24:06.180 --> 00:24:07.280
  • - KELLY: REGARDLESS OF ONE
  • 00:24:07.280 --> 00:24:08.240
  • TERRIBLE SITUATION, P3s ARE
  • 00:24:09.010 --> 00:24:12.010
  • BECOMING MORE AND MORE
  • 00:24:12.010 --> 00:24:14.040
  • COMMONPLACE, AND FOR GOOD
  • 00:24:14.040 --> 00:24:14.230
  • - VERONIQUE: YES, THERE ARE
  • 00:24:17.110 --> 00:24:18.110
  • BAD ACTORS SOMETIMES IN THE
  • 00:24:18.110 --> 00:24:19.250
  • PRIVATE SECTOR, BUT, AT THE
  • 00:24:19.250 --> 00:24:20.200
  • VERY LEAST, THEY CAN BE HELD
  • 00:24:20.200 --> 00:24:21.110
  • ACCOUNTABLE.
  • 00:24:21.110 --> 00:24:22.240
  • AND AT THE STATE AND FEDERAL
  • 00:24:22.240 --> 00:24:24.080
  • ON AVERAGE, THE RULE OF THUMB,
  • 00:24:28.010 --> 00:24:28.230
  • BASED ON THE DATA, IS THAT THE
  • 00:24:28.230 --> 00:24:30.040
  • RETURN ON PRIVATE-SECTOR
  • 00:24:30.070 --> 00:24:33.070
  • INVESTMENT IS JUST WAY HIGHER.
  • 00:24:33.070 --> 00:24:35.200
  • - KELLY: MANY AMERICANS MAY
  • 00:24:35.200 --> 00:24:37.020
  • WONDER ABOUT WHAT THEIR ROLE IS
  • 00:24:37.020 --> 00:24:38.150
  • IN ALL OF THIS.
  • 00:24:38.150 --> 00:24:40.130
  • IF THEY CAN'T PERSONALLY
  • 00:24:40.130 --> 00:24:42.090
  • INVEST, IS THERE ANYTHING THEY
  • 00:24:42.090 --> 00:24:44.080
  • CAN DO TO TAKE CARE OF THEIR
  • 00:24:44.080 --> 00:24:45.200
  • COMMUNITIES INFRASTRUCTURE?
  • 00:24:45.200 --> 00:24:47.280
  • - KRISTIN: FIRST, GET EDUCATED
  • 00:24:47.280 --> 00:24:49.130
  • ABOUT THE STATE OF THE
  • 00:24:49.130 --> 00:24:50.010
  • AND, AT A MINIMUM, BECOME AWARE
  • 00:24:51.290 --> 00:24:53.060
  • BECAUSE, SO OFTEN, WHETHER OR
  • 00:24:55.280 --> 00:24:57.290
  • NOT INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT
  • 00:24:57.290 --> 00:25:00.220
  • HAPPENS, COMES DOWN TO HOW WE
  • 00:25:00.220 --> 00:25:01.130
  • ACT AS AN INDIVIDUAL AND
  • 00:25:01.130 --> 00:25:03.100
  • WHETHER OR NOT WE VOTE.
  • 00:25:03.100 --> 00:25:05.230
  • - DR. ROBERT MCNAB: PEOPLE
  • 00:25:05.230 --> 00:25:06.130
  • HAVE A VOTE.
  • 00:25:06.130 --> 00:25:07.210
  • AND VOTES ARE VERY POWERFUL.
  • 00:25:07.210 --> 00:25:08.120
  • WHERE ARE THE VOTES MOST
  • 00:25:08.120 --> 00:25:09.110
  • POWERFUL?
  • 00:25:09.110 --> 00:25:11.210
  • WHERE IS A LOT OF
  • 00:25:11.210 --> 00:25:12.270
  • INFRASTRUCTURE CONTROLLED?
  • 00:25:12.270 --> 00:25:13.160
  • MOST INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE
  • 00:25:15.220 --> 00:25:17.050
  • UNITED STATES HAS SOME PUBLIC
  • 00:25:17.050 --> 00:25:19.060
  • THERE'S WATER-CONTROL BOARDS,
  • 00:25:22.050 --> 00:25:22.260
  • SEWER- AND SANITATION
  • 00:25:22.260 --> 00:25:24.050
  • DISTRICTS, THERE'S UH,
  • 00:25:24.050 --> 00:25:25.190
  • TRANSPORTATION DISTRICTS,
  • 00:25:25.190 --> 00:25:27.220
  • ELECTRICAL-PROVISION DISTRICTS.
  • 00:25:27.220 --> 00:25:28.200
  • IN OTHER WORDS, THERE ARE
  • 00:25:28.200 --> 00:25:30.150
  • GOVERNMENT COMMITTEES AND
  • 00:25:30.150 --> 00:25:31.230
  • ENTITIES AT THE LOCAL, STATE,
  • 00:25:31.230 --> 00:25:33.110
  • AND FEDERAL LEVEL THAT REGULATE
  • 00:25:33.110 --> 00:25:35.060
  • THESE BUSINESSES AND PROVIDERS.
  • 00:25:35.060 --> 00:25:37.170
  • AND YET, AMERICANS DON'T
  • 00:25:37.170 --> 00:25:39.290
  • INTERACT WITH THESE LEVELS OF
  • 00:25:39.290 --> 00:25:41.130
  • GOVERNMENT AT ALL.
  • 00:25:41.130 --> 00:25:44.100
  • IF YOU'RE DISSATISFIED, RUN FOR
  • 00:25:44.100 --> 00:25:45.020
  • AN OFFICE!
  • 00:25:45.020 --> 00:25:46.130
  • MOST AMERICANS LOOK AT OFFICE
  • 00:25:46.130 --> 00:25:47.210
  • AND GO, "OH, THAT'S TOO HARD,
  • 00:25:47.210 --> 00:25:49.080
  • IT'S TOO COMPLICATED, IT'S TOO
  • 00:25:49.080 --> 00:25:50.240
  • POLITICAL."
  • 00:25:50.240 --> 00:25:52.100
  • WE'RE NOT TALKING ABOUT RUNNING
  • 00:25:52.100 --> 00:25:53.020
  • FOR NATIONAL OFFICE, BUT WE'RE
  • 00:25:53.020 --> 00:25:54.110
  • TALKING ABOUT, HEY, TRY TO GET
  • 00:25:54.110 --> 00:25:56.080
  • APPOINTED TO YOUR LOCAL
  • 00:25:56.080 --> 00:25:57.150
  • DEVELOPMENT BOARD.
  • 00:25:57.150 --> 00:25:59.080
  • TRY TO GET APPOINTED TO YOUR
  • 00:25:59.080 --> 00:26:00.160
  • LOCAL TOURISM BOARD.
  • 00:26:00.160 --> 00:26:01.150
  • THOSE ARE THE KEY ELEMENTS OF
  • 00:26:01.150 --> 00:26:04.070
  • GOVERNMENT WHERE CITIZENS CAN
  • 00:26:04.070 --> 00:26:05.250
  • IMPACT POLICY, WHICH AFFECTS
  • 00:26:05.250 --> 00:26:07.280
  • OUTCOMES.
  • 00:26:11.250 --> 00:26:14.250
  • - KELLY: IN THE END, THE
  • 00:26:14.250 --> 00:26:15.170
  • SITUATION IS QUITE COMPLEX.
  • 00:26:15.170 --> 00:26:16.070
  • INFRASTRUCTURE IS A GAME OF
  • 00:26:16.070 --> 00:26:17.140
  • NUMBERS AND FIGURES, BUT ALSO
  • 00:26:17.140 --> 00:26:18.050
  • ONE OF LIVES.
  • 00:26:19.000 --> 00:26:22.000
  • IT IS SOMETHING THAT AFFECTS
  • 00:26:22.000 --> 00:26:23.060
  • EACH AND EVERY AMERICAN.
  • 00:26:23.060 --> 00:26:24.180
  • AND SO, EACH SHOULD STRIVE TO
  • 00:26:24.180 --> 00:26:26.210
  • FURTHER EDUCATE THEMSELVES
  • 00:26:26.210 --> 00:26:27.290
  • ABOUT IT.
  • 00:26:27.290 --> 00:26:30.020
  • GO TO YOUR CITY OFFICIALS.
  • 00:26:30.020 --> 00:26:31.140
  • SPEAK TO THOSE WHO CONTROL THE
  • 00:26:31.140 --> 00:26:34.000
  • INFRASTRUCTURE IN YOUR TOWN OR
  • 00:26:34.000 --> 00:26:34.280
  • YOUR CITY.
  • 00:26:34.280 --> 00:26:36.250
  • AND KEEP IN MIND THESE FINAL
  • 00:26:36.250 --> 00:26:39.150
  • WORDS, AS YOU DO:
  • 00:26:39.150 --> 00:26:42.110
  • - DR. MCNAB: WE HAVE GONE BACK
  • 00:26:42.110 --> 00:26:43.030
  • AND FORTH IN THE UNITED STATES
  • 00:26:43.030 --> 00:26:44.140
  • ON THIS ISSUE.
  • 00:26:44.140 --> 00:26:45.180
  • THERE IS NO RIGHT ANSWER.
  • 00:26:45.180 --> 00:26:47.250
  • THERE IS NO MORAL ANSWER, IN
  • 00:26:47.250 --> 00:26:50.130
  • THAT, ECONOMICALLY, WE SAY: THE
  • 00:26:50.130 --> 00:26:53.020
  • SOCIETY HAS TO DECIDE.
  • 00:26:53.020 --> 00:26:56.010
  • WHAT'S THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT
  • 00:26:56.010 --> 00:26:57.230
  • AT THE NATIONAL-, STATE-, AND
  • 00:26:57.230 --> 00:26:59.190
  • LOCAL-GOVERNMENT LEVEL?
  • 00:26:59.190 --> 00:27:00.200
  • THE MORE YOU SAY THE ROLE OF
  • 00:27:00.200 --> 00:27:01.100
  • GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE, YOU HAVE
  • 00:27:01.100 --> 00:27:03.000
  • TO REALIZE THE MORE FREEDOMS
  • 00:27:03.000 --> 00:27:04.070
  • YOU'RE GOING TO GIVE UP,
  • 00:27:04.070 --> 00:27:05.110
  • BECAUSE THE GOVERNMENT'S GOING
  • 00:27:05.110 --> 00:27:06.270
  • TO DICTATE MORE OF HOW YOU LIVE
  • 00:27:06.270 --> 00:27:07.190
  • [MUSIC]
  • 00:27:17.270 --> 00:27:20.270